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ScraperA scraper is a heavy machine used for moving earth. It is also referred to as a wheeled tractor-scraper. The rear element has a vertically movable bowl with a sharp level edge. The bowl, which is also called a hopper, can be lowered and raised with hydraulics. When the hopper is lowered the front rim cuts into the earthen clay, or soil, like a cheese slicer and fills up the hopper. The hopper has a capacity of 34 m³ or 45 yd³ varying based on the model and make.
When the bowl/hopper is filled to capacity it is raised and closed with an apron; which is a vertical blade. The scraper then transports its load to the work site where the ejector blade on the back panel of the hopper is raised and is hydraulically pushed forward so that the load drops out.
Scrapers are very ideal for short hauls where the scraping areas and fill sites are nearby and have adequate length to fill the bowl. The larger and weightier scraper models have tandem engines; one engine powering the front wheels and the second mechanizing the rear wheels. The engines come with up to 400kw or 550 horsepower. There are techniques that utilize two scrapers working together in a push-pull maneuver but this necessitates a long cutting area.
Some of the major scraper manufacturers are CASE, CATERPILLAR, CHAMPION, DEERE, DRESSER, FIATALLIS, GALION, HUBER, KOMATSU, LEEBOY, NEW HOLLAND and VOLVO.